Archive | December, 2016

Using Xi space to label fermions consistently

2 Dec

Here’s my latest Xi space diagram. It leverages the RGBQ labeling to provide a compact, self-consistent way to label all known fermions, that is, fundamental particles with 1/2 unit of spin:

At the deepest level, the common structure of all fermions breaks down into just four architectures that are based on the magnitude of their electrical charges. These four fundamental fermion architectures are: neutrino-type fermions with electrical charge magnitude zero; down-type quarks with charge magnitude 1/3; up-type fermions with charge magnitude 2/3;  and electron-type fermions with charge magnitude 1.

However, these four simple patterns balloon into a total of 90 variants when all quantum numbers and factors are taken into account. First, there are three “Generations” of  fermions, each with 30 variants. Strangely, these three generations differ only by the masses of the fermions within them, e.g. in terms of quantum numbers a muon looks very much like an inexplicably massive electron. Each Generation of 30 fermions is further divided into 15 ordinary matter fermions and 15 antimatter versions. The quarks in each family, which are the fermions with fractional 1/3 and 2/3 magnitude electrical charges, are tripled in number by three strong-force “color charges.” Finally, every non-zero-charge (non-neutrino) fermion has both a left-handed and a right-handed version. These two chiral versions of a fermion alternate and interact with each other at a quantum level via the Higgs boson, and by doing so create the mass of the ordinary versions of those fermions that we see everyday.

The phi notation augments RGBQ labeling with generations, chirality, and something called “weak isospin” to enable consistent labeling of the key properties of all of these 90 fermion variants.